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A Magnesium-Incorporated Nanoporous Titanium Coating for Rapid Osseointegration

 

Authors Li X, Wang M, Zhang W, Bai Y, Liu Y, Meng J, Zhang L

Received 30 March 2020

Accepted for publication 5 August 2020

Published 8 September 2020 Volume 2020:15 Pages 6593—6603

DOI https://doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S255486

Checked for plagiarism Yes

Review by Single anonymous peer review

Peer reviewer comments 2

Editor who approved publication: Dr Linlin Sun

Purpose: Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is a fast and effective method to prepare nanoporous coatings with high biological activity and bonding strength. Simple micro/nano-coatings cannot fully meet the requirements of osteogenesis. To further improve the biological activity of a titanium surface, we successfully added biological magnesium (Mg2+) to a coating by micro-arc oxidation and evaluated the optimal magnesium concentration in the electrolyte, biocompatibility, cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in vitro.
Methods: Nanoporous titanium coatings with different concentrations of magnesium were prepared by micro-arc oxidation and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The Mg2+ release ability of the magnesium-incorporated nanoporous titanium coatings was determined by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The cytotoxicity of the magnesium-incorporated nanoporous titanium coatings was detected with live/dead double-staining tests. A CCK-8 assay was employed to evaluate cell proliferation, and FITC-phalloidin was used to determine the structure of the cytoskeleton by staining β-actin. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was evaluated by alizarin red S (ARS) staining to determine the effect of the coatings on osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The mRNA expression of osteogenic differentiation-related markers was measured using qRT-PCR.
Results: EDS analyses revealed the successful addition of magnesium to the microporous coatings. The best magnesium concentration of the electrolyte for preparing the new coating was determined. The results showed that the nano-coatings prepared using the electrolyte with 2 g/L magnesium acetate best promoted the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).
Conclusion: These results suggest that the new titanium metal coating with a dual effect of promoting bone morphology and supplying the biological ion Mg2+ can be beneficial for rapid osseointegration.
Keywords: micro/arc oxidation, magnesium-incorporated nanoporous coating, osteoinductivity